Michael B. Lehner, CPA/ABV, CFE, ASA
October 22, 2019
levels of value in business valuation

What are the three levels of value in business valuation?

The level of value used in a business valuation may affect an expert’s analyses and techniques. This article explains how experts determine the appropriate level of value and why it’s critical to make this determination before work begins.
October 8, 2019
Business valuation experts “normalize” owners’ compensation adjust reasonable level.

Adjusting owners’ compensation in business valuation

Owners of privately held businesses may draw large salaries because of tax advantages or take little or no salary to enhance the company’s reported earnings. In these cases, the valuation expert needs to “normalize” owners’ compensation and adjust it to a reasonable level. This article identifies factors that valuators consider in determining reasonable owners’ compensation.
July 12, 2019
Valuing distressed companies

Valuing distressed companies

Struggling businesses face different financial challenges than healthy ones do. This article discusses how business valuation experts factor these differences into their estimations when valuing troubled companies.
June 17, 2019
business valuation professional standards engagements calculations valuations.

How do business valuations and calculations differ?

Most business valuation professional standards recognize two types of engagements: calculations and valuations. This article explains the critical distinction between these types of assignments — and the reason a full valuation report is necessary in most litigation contexts.
June 2, 2019
Business Value dissenting shareholders case court best evidence fair value target company’s unaffected stock price

Court turns to stock price as best evidence of fair value

In recent years, Delaware’s Supreme Court has shown its preference, under the right circumstances, for market-based indicators of value in statutory appraisal cases. This article summarizes a recent dissenting shareholders case in which the court concluded that the best evidence of fair value was the target company’s unaffected stock price. Conversely, a sidebar highlights another case in which the court relied on an expert’s discounted cash flow analysis in the absence of reliable market-based indicators of value.
April 19, 2019
pricing multiples business valuation experts market approach

Market approach: How to pick a relevant pricing multiple in Business Valuation

Courts tend to prefer the market approach in business valuation, because it’s based on real-world “comparable” transactions. This article identifies different pricing multiples that may be used in the market approach and explains when each one tends to work best. Statistical tools can help business valuation experts evaluate which multiples are most relevant based on market evidence.
February 1, 2019
business valuation sale of business valuation

Business valuation experts can provide insight during M&As

A recent survey reported an active merger and acquisition (M&A) market for small businesses in 2017 — and that momentum has continued in 2018. This article explains how business valuation professionals can help owners prepare for sale and increase the chances of receiving a premium selling price.
January 25, 2019
business valuation common pricing multiples

Pick a winner: Understanding business valuation pricing multiples

Under the market approach, a business’s value is derived by comparing it to real-life transactions involving similar private or public companies. This article outlines common pricing multiples, such as price-to-earnings and price-to-discretionary-income, and discusses some pros and cons.
January 3, 2019
Avoid common pitfalls when applying the income approach in business valuation

Avoid common pitfalls when applying the income approach in business valuation

Valuing a business using projected earnings is a complex undertaking. This article identifies common pitfalls that novice or untrained valuators tend to make when using the income approach. A sidebar compares and contrasts two methods that fall under the income approach: the capitalization of earnings and discounted cash flow methods.
November 10, 2018
critical benchmarks business valuation experts profitability, liquidity, asset management leverage.

Benchmarking performance in business valuation

One way business valuation experts gauge company-specific risk is to benchmark financial performance over time and against competitors. This article explains critical benchmarks that experts monitor: profitability, liquidity, asset management and leverage. A sidebar discusses the importance of understanding differences in accounting methods when analyzing financial results.